In 1998, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) issued passenger rail equipment regulations requiring that the interior location of each door intended for emergency egress be lighted or conspicuously and legibly marked by luminescent material, that emergency window exits be conspicuously marked with luminescent material, and that clear operating instructions be posted at or near each door and window exit.
The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) developed standards to provide guidance for meeting the FRA regulations, to establish minimum requirements for Low-Location Exit Path Markings (LLEPM) intended to provide visual guidance to facilitate egress of passengers and train crew members from passenger rail cars during conditions of darkness when the emergency lighting system has failed or when smoke conditions obscure overhead emergency lighting, as well as provide emergency responders access to cars under various types of emergency situations that require the last resort measure of car evacuation.
Visual Marking Systems is proud to be an active participant in the APTA Rail Transit Vehicle Inspection & Maintenance Committee that helped develop these standards.
An effective systems approach uses the following standards to provide a means for passengers and crew members to locate, reach, and operate emergency exits to facilitate their safe evacuation in an emergency.
- APTA SS-PS-004-99 Rev 2 Standard for Low-Location Exit Path Marking
- APTA SS-PS-002-98 Rev 3 Standard for Emergency Signage for Egress/Access of Passenger Rail Equipment
- APTA RT-VIM-S-020-10 Emergency Lighting System Design for Rail Transit Vehicles
- APTA RT-S-VIM-021-10 Emergency Signage for Rail Transit Vehicles
- APTA RT-VIM-S-022-10 Low-Location Emergency Path Marking for Rail Transit Vehicles
- APTA RT-VIM-S-023-12 Emergency Egress/Access for Rail Transit Vehicles
Download our Emergency & Exit Path Planning “Quick Guide” to HPPL / LLEPM Standards
This “Quick Guide” is intended to provide a reference for some of the markings required by APTA SS-PS-004-99 Rev. 2 Standard for Low-Location Exit Path Markings, APTA SS-PS-002-98 Rev. 3 Standard for Emergency Signage for Egress / Access of Passenger Rail Equipment and APTA RT-S-VIM-021-10 Emergency Signage for Rail Transit Vehicles, APTA RT-VIM-S-022-10 Low-Location Emergency Path Marking for Rail Transit Vehicles, and APTA RT-VIM-S-023-12 Emergency Egress/Access for Rail Transit Vehicles.
Please consult the APTA standards or a VMS Transportation Specialist for complete compliance requirements.